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Thread: Mysis Shrimp-Natural History and as fish food.......

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    Default Mysis Shrimp-Natural History and as fish food.......

    Mysis relicta- Natural History and as Food for Fish
    Al Sabetta 7/2002

    Native and Introduced History
    Mysis relicta evolved as a fresh water shrimp from another shrimp, Mysis oculata, thru a process where melting glaciers decreased the saline content waters that M. oculata lived in. The shrimp adapted and evolved into the fresh water species known as Mysis relicta. This shrimp is naturally found in some northern Lakes of North America where it plays a very important part in the food chain, notably in the Great lakes region where it feeds primarily on phytoplankton., and is consumed by many native fish that it evolved with. It has acquired the common name of opossum shrimp.
    Because of its role in the Great Lakes Food chain, this shrimp was artificially introduced into other northern lakes in the United States and Canada in the hopes that it would serve as a food source for various important salmon species. This was done in the 1940s in a British Columbia lake, Lake Kootenay. The target predator was to be the Sockeye Salmon, [Oncorhynchus nerka. These salmon are then fed on by very large strain of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss ,known as Gerrard trout. It was hoped this would boost the Gerrard Trouts Populations, but it didn’t. It did however boost another population of Salmon, Kokanee.and which resulted in an excellent sports fishery for the next couple of decades, until the Kokanee population crashed in the 1990’s for what is thought to be many reasons, including the Mysis.

    The success of Lake Kootenay introduction lead to further introductions elsewhere where the Kokanee Salmon existed, in the hopes that it would do the same there . In 1966 the shrimp were introduced to Okanagan Lake - British Columbia., where the shrimp populations grew to very high densities , and the Kokanee salmon population Crashed. Researchers discovered that though the Mysis shrimp were a great food source for the Kokanee adults, the Mysis shrimp were preying on the fry of the salmon! The densities in this Lake grew to such proportions that it now supports a commercial shrimp fishery, Piscine Energetics (Mysis.com), which supplies this shrimp as food for Aquarium fish.


    In other Lakes where they have been introduced, like Flathead Lake-Montana, the shrimp have also had a negative impact on the natural ecosystems. In general introductions of exotic species in any ecosystem, usually have a very negative impact on the native flora and fauna.. This has been demonstrated time after time.

    Biology and reproduction….
    The biology of these shrimp is direct without any naupliar stages, meaning from hatching the young look like the adults only smaller. Upon hatching they go thru several stages of growth called instars, where they shed their chitinous exoskeleton so that growth may occur. Males have four instar stages of development, females have five stages. Sexual maturity is usually 1 year, but in colder lakes , can be up to two years. Mating typically occurs in the winter, the males then die and the females remain alive for several more months , carrying the fertilized eggs in a special brood pouch (the source of its common name- Opossum Shrimp). The eggs hatch in 3-4 months and the young emerge fully developed..

    Mysis as an Aquarium Fish Food…
    As stated earlier the high populations and nutritious composition of Mysis relicta has created an opportunity for commercial harvesting , packaging, and marketing of this product for public, private, and institutional use as a healthy fish food. There are many benefits associated with Mysis relicta as a food source, foremost among them are a high protein content and an excellent fatty acid profile.

    The following Nutritional analysis was generously provided by Piscine Energetics (Mysis.com)

    Frozen Mysis (% concentration)
    ·***Protein 10.46
    ·***Crude Fat 3.29
    ·***Moisture 82.27
    ·***Ash 1.65
    ·***Carbohydrates (by subtraction) 2.3
    ·***
    Freeze Dried Mysis (% concentration)
    ·***Min Crude Protein 69.5
    ·***Min crude Fat 8.35
    ·***Max crude fiber 2.75
    ·***Max ash 5.5

    Fatty Acid % Profile of Freeze Dried Mysis

    ·***C14:0…………Myristate…...……..8.47mg/g
    ·***C16:0…………Palmitate…..……...24.73mg/g
    ·***C16:1…………Palmitoleate……….11.59mg/g
    ·***C18:0…………Stearate……..……..0.89mg/g
    ·***C18:1…………Oleate……………..17.07mg/g
    ·***C18:2(n-6)……Linoleate…………..7.39 mg/g
    ·***C20.0…………Arachidate………....0.00mg/g
    ·***C18:3(n-3)……Linolenate…………..7.14 mg/g
    ·***C20:1…………Eicosaenoate………. 0.00mg/g
    ·***C20:3(n-3)……Eicosatrienoate….….9.87 mg/g
    ·***C20:4(n-6)……Eicosatetraenoate…...0.00mg/g
    ·***C20:5(n-3)……Eicosapentaenoic…...17.85mg/g
    ·***C24:0…………Nervonate…………...0.00mg/g
    ·***C22:5(n-6)……Docosapentaenoic..…0.00mg/g
    ·***C22:5(n-3)……Docosapentaenoic… 0.00mg/g
    ·***C22:6(n-3)……Docosahexaenoic….12.53mg/g


    Other Values of nutritional interest
    ·***Energy…………………84 Cal/100g
    ·***Energy…………………350 KJoules/100g


    In conclusion, Though this small fresh water shrimp may have had a questionable affect on native populations of fish where it has been introduced. The resulting success of it in these cold water lakes has provided and ideal food for hobbyists that require nutritious food for their fish. It contains many fatty acids that are recommended for healthy fish , and has a high % of protein. This makes it a very good food for carnivorous fresh water and saltwater fish.


    As a post note , the authors personal experience with the use of Mysis relicta as a food for Discus Fish, Symphysodon spp. , has been a very positive. It is one of the staples that he feeds to his discus. It appears to have a marked effect on energy levels of the fish, increases spawning behavior, and is an excellent growth food.

    References……

    http://www.cst.cmich.edu/users/mcnau...web/index.html
    http://royal.okanagan.bc.ca/kokanee/fishredu.htm
    http://www.flatheadlakers.org/HOTISSUE/f_process.htm
    http://nas.er.usgs.gov/crustaceans/docs/my_relic.html
    http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/res/Task_r...hoven09-2.html
    http://www.mysis.com
    http://www.realpetreviews.com/mysis.html

    Related literature of interest….
    http://www.fisheries.org/publication...al/x540.09.htm

    Balcer, B.D., N.L. Korda, S.I. Dodson. 1984. Zooplankton of the Great Lakes. The University of Wisconsin Press, Ltd. London, England. pp. 103-106

    Chess, D.W., J.A. Stanford. 1998. Comparative energetics and life cycle of the opossum shrimp Mysis relicta in native and non-native environments. Freshwater Biology 40(4):783-794

    Grossnickle, N.E. 1982. The herbivorous and predaceous habits of Mysis relicta in Lake Michigan. PHD Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison

    Lasenby, D.C., M. Furst. 1981. Feeding of Mysis relicta on macrozooplankton. Institute of Freshwater Research Drottingham Report 0(59):75-80

    Lehman, J.T., J.A. Bowers, R.W. Gensemer, G.J. Warren, D.K.

    Branstrator. 1990. Mysis relicta in Lake Michigan (USA): abundances and relationships with their potential prey, Daphnia. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 47(5):977-983

    Tohtz, J. 1993. Lake whitefish diet and growth after introduction of Mysis relicta to Flathead Lake, Montana. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 122(4):629-635

    Gal, G., L. G. Rudstam, & C. H. Greene, 1999. Acoustic characterization of Mysis relicta. Limnol. Oceanogr. 44: 371-381

    Pothoven, S.A., G. L. Fahnenstiel, H. A. Vanderploeg, & M. Luttenton, 2000. Population Dynamics of Mysis relicta in southeastern Lake Michigan, 1995-1998. J. Great Lakes Res. 26: 357-365.

    Clements, W.A., D.S. Rawson, and J.L. McHugh. 1939. A biological survey of Okanagan Lake, British Colombia. Fisheries Research Board of Canada Bulletin 56.

    Nesler, T.P. and E.P. Bergersen. 1991. Mysids and their impacts on fisheries: an introduction to the 1988 Mysid-Fisheries symposium. Pages 1-4
    In: T.P. Nesler and E.P. Bergersen, editors. Mysids in fisheries: hard lessons from headlong introductions. American Fisheries Society Symposium 9, Bethesda, Maryland.

    Pennak, R.W. 1989. Fresh-water invertebrates of the United States, protozoa to mollusca. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 3rd ed.

    Mysis relicta Lovén into Kootenay Lake, British Columbia. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 21:1325-1327


    All rights reserved , Al Sabetta, Copyright July 2002

  2. #2
    Don_Lee
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    Default Re:Mysis Shrimp-Natural History and as fish food.......

    Great information Al, thanks for sharing! I have been feeding mysis shrimp some too and have found that the fish love them. My good buddy Daryl likened them to steak, one does want to be careful not to feed them too much as it seems to fill them up!

    Don

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    Default Re:Mysis Shrimp-Natural History and as fish food.......

    Wow! Al , good job!! even a great bibliography! I tried Hikari frozen mysis sh. but my discus do not like them, won't even try, just watch them drop to bottom. lol, feed them to my sw fish. Dottie ??? ???

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    Default Re:Mysis Shrimp-Natural History and as fish food.......

    Just another example of why we shouldn't try to play god with mother nature. Creatures live in the habitats they do for a reason. I don't know why people think there are easy fixes to millions of years of "tweaking."

    Good info Al!

    Mike T 8)

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    Default Re:Mysis Shrimp-Natural History and as fish food.......

    Hey,
    Don't be too harsh, some imports do work, example salmon in the great lakes, it is a great fishery. I agree some don't work, but there are many that do.
    But as for mysis my discus over 3 inches love them.
    My too cents
    Daryl

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    Default Re:Mysis Shrimp-Natural History and as fish food.......

    I have been feeding mysis shrimp for about the last 5-6 months. Most of my fish really go for them. I do have one tank of 4"-5" that will only eat the back half of the mysis. I wind up with one corner of the tank having a little pile of mysis heads with little eyes staring up at me. It really is kind of funny.
    Has anyone else ever had this problem?
    Donna

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    Default Re:Mysis Shrimp-Natural History and as fish food.......

    Great info!

    I have now been feeding Mysis to ALL of my Discus & all of them have taken to it.

    It is not their favorite but they always finish their meal!

    IMO variety is a great thing.

    Andy

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    Default Re:Mysis Shrimp-Natural History and as fish food.......

    Okay that's it, I'm ready to place my order....darn and there's nothing in the fridge . Okay I will go food shopping first so I don't get kicked outta the house! :P

    -Tom-


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    Default Re:Mysis Shrimp-Natural History and as fish food.......

    I experience the same thing! that my group of 4-5cm discus would only eat the body half of the shrimp and leave the head untouch..

    Initiallly my discus did not like taking this type of shrimp as compared to frozen blood worm but after few tries, they have taken the idea and will finish all the shrimp given, minus the heads

    that is rather funny to me too!

    *question : I always feed 2-3 types of food to my discus (for every meal) - this that OK? or should I kind of like feed only bloodworm for the breakfast, only shrimp for the lunch and only dry food for dinner?

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    Default Re:Mysis Shrimp-Natural History and as fish food.......

    Hi hanleong,
    You can feed multiple kinds of food at the same time. Its probabaly healthier than feeding one kind each meal. Most just feed one kind because its easier...thats my excuse at least!

    hth,
    al

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    Default Re:Mysis Shrimp-Natural History and as fish food.......

    Hi all ! I like feeding my Discus mysis also along with homemade beefheart & bloodworms. My only problem is that the mysis clouds up the water really bad and that kills me. After getting my water polished, to see it get so bad. I started to rinse them in a strainer but someone told me that then I was washing awy all the nutients. Is this true ?

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    Default Re:Mysis Shrimp-Natural History and as fish food.......

    Hi George,
    I take the amount of food I will feed and place it in a quart size water container. Add luke warm or cool water thaw, and stir. Let settle and pour off the cloudy water. I repeat this usually2X. Then feedafter poring off the water. You lose some nutrients, but what is rinsed away is mostly oil and debris , not soemthing the discus would have eaten anyway. Whats inside the shrimp stays. Don't use hot water though, that will draw the good stuff out.

    HTH,
    al

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    Default Re:Mysis Shrimp-Natural History and as fish food.......

    Thanx for the tip. That is what I was doing but was told that the nutrients get lost. I guess this method does work. Gonna get some more MYSIS this weekend. I know that the shrimp are high in protein and I just bought some new Royal Reds and I want them to be get nice and big. I also bought a Red Marlboro, however I am still waiting for her to turn red. Changing the subject, do you know of anyone who has White Butterflies ? I want to buy a pair. See ys, Scubaboy.

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    Default Re:Mysis Shrimp-Natural History and as fish food.......

    Hi Scubaboy

    Try Cary Strong at Great Lakes Discus, his banner is at the bottom of the page. That's where I got my white butterflies, and he usually has them in stock. Great looking discus!!!!

    DenverDan

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    Default Re:Mysis Shrimp-Natural History and as fish food.......

    D.D., Thanks. I have looking at his fish and they are awesome. I am just afraid that my girlfriend and I will like them too much and go But, gotta havem. Thanks for the response. Scubaboy

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